As 19-year-old Saudi Arabian athlete Sarah Attar crossed the finish line of the 800m sprint at the London Olympics in 2012, an audience of 80,000 stood to applaud her. The crowd wasn’t congratulating Attar on victory—she had finished over half a minute behind competitors. Instead, spectators were responding to Attar’s historic presence as one of the first female athletes to represent Saudi Arabia in the Olympics. Because the Olympics involve competing in front of a mixed-gendered crowd, the country had previously banned women from attending. When Attar and her fellow team member Wojdan Shaherkani were allowed to compete, the public was awash in optimism about what their performance would mean for female athletics in the kingdom.
This year at the 2016 Rio Olympics, Saudi Arabia has doubled the number of female athletes on its roster, sending four women to Rio. It would seem that Attar and Shaherkani did set a precedent. But the addition of female Olympians does not signal broader change to the strict regulations the kingdom imposes on women.
“The presence of female athletes [in the 2012 Olympics] made things worse, because it allowed Saudi Arabia to escape criticism,” says Ali Al-Ahmed, a Saudi scholar who has published studies on women’s sports in Saudi Arabia for the Gulf Institute. “It was a fig leaf—they did this for the international community.”
A new report from Human Rights Watch (HRW), published on Aug. 4, shows that Saudi Arabia has made some notable advances in the realm of women and fitness, such as appointing Princess Reema bint Bandar Al-Saud to head a new female department of Saudi Arabia’s sports ministry. But female athletes still face significant discrimination.
“In 2012 when two women competed in the Olympics, there was disappointment when that moment wasn’t followed by durable reform within the kingdom,” says Minky Worden, director of global initiatives for HRW and the author of the report. “There should have been a greater lasting impact, but I think there was an absence of concentrated pressure.”
Today, women living in Saudi Arabia cannot participate in state-organized sports leagues, national tournaments, or even attend their national team’s games as spectators. Of the 150 official sports clubs, none are open to women. While boys’ schools have mandatory gym classes, the majority of girls’ schools do not include a physical education curriculum. Women cannot exercise in fitness studios with men, and female-only facilities are often denied licenses or shut down.
A few underground running clubs have popped up where women run in packs, covered by full hijabs. And some women have tried to operate gyms using health-club licenses, which are used by hotels and nail salons. But they can’t provide the same variety of activities, and their high fees make them inaccessible to many female customers.
As a result, the kingdom is experiencing a vacuum of Olympic-caliber female athletes. So how have four women been able to compete in this year’s Olympics?
In 2012, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) gave Saudi Arabia an ultimatum: include women in their roster, or be barred from participating. Rather than be disqualified from the entire competition, Saudi officials began sourcing talented women. Countries normally rely on federations to identify Olympic candidates through rigorous competition, but because of a dearth of resources invested in women’s sports in Saudi Arabia, Saudi officials were forced to hand-pick female athletes and enter them on wild-card entries, permitting their participation despite performing under Olympic-qualifying standards.
“In order to meaningfully take part according to the rules of the Olympics, there shouldn’t be one standard for female athletes in Saudi Arabia and one for the rest of the world,” Worden says. “It’s not fair to women to have them competing against Olympians who have trained their whole lives when they haven’t had a comparable amount of support to train.”
All four women representing Saudi Arabia could only amass the skills needed to compete in the Olympics by leaving the country they ostensibly compete for.Without internal infrastructure to promote women in sports, officials were also forced to rely on female athletes who were either foreign or spent significant time training abroad. Attar, for example, grew up in California. Sprinter Cariman Abu Al-Jadail is a student at Boston University, while Judoka Wujud Fahmi trained in the United States and fencer Lubna Al-Omair in Egypt. In other words, all four women representing Saudi Arabia could only amass the skills needed to compete in the Olympics by leaving the country they ostensibly compete for.
Al-Ahmed worries these women placate the international public without being truly representative of most women’s plights in Saudi Arabia. “The girls going to Rio are going to cover up the suffering of 10 million women in Saudi Arabia, and many of them were not even raised there, or grew up in Western regions,” Al-Ahmed says. There are certainly Saudi women who could potentially compete at an Olympic level, but without the resources invested in female athletes of all levels, their talent cannot be developed. “You cannot have elite athletes until you have sports programs set up for girls in state schools,” Worden says.[…]
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